Ultrasound is a kind of mechano (mechanical vibrations). Ultrasounds are part sonotherapy. The most commonly used physical frequency range of 0.8 to 3 MHz. Ultrasound treatment is local effects and general. Changes to local arising on sonication. These are mechanical changes (micro-massage), thermal changes (overheating tissues) and changes in physico-chemical (influence of ultrasound on the tissue colloids). Conversion general occur as a result sonication roots, weaves or ganglia, which causes reflex reactions in dysfunctional organs. In addition, there is a stimulation of the sympathetic system.
Ultrasound is used with a coupling agent, which may be water (if an untreated area and the applicator head are in water), or gels, petrolatum, paraffin oil.
Indications for ultrasound are very wide, they include among others:
• Chronic rheumatic diseases during periods of non-inflammatory.
• Periarticular inflammations, arthrosis,
• Diseases of tendons and muscle attachments,
• Scars – for the purpose of softening,
• United traumatic,
• Pain syndromes of the spine,
• Myalgia, miogelozy, increased muscle tension,
• Pain in the ear,
• Neuralgia shingles,
• Heel spur, osteophytes,
• And other.
Contraindications to ultrasound:
• Cancer (during treatment and a history)
• Neighborhood: heart, lung, and internal organs of the abdomen, brain, testicular tumors, eye, neck medulla above-C3
• Implanted pacemakers and other implants and electrical appliances,
• Metal at the site of lesions,
• Up to 8 months after the X-ray exposures,
• After implantation of artificial implants (eg. Acrylic, polyethylene)
• Abnormal blood clotting,
• Thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, varicose veins,
• Acute inflammatory symptoms,
• Advanced calcification,
• Skin changes especially in the course of infectious diseases,
• The area of bone epiphyses and especially in children.
• As a general wasting of the body.
Duration short 1-3 minutes,
Duration average 4-9 minutes,
Duration long 10-15 minutes.
Phonophoresis – it is a procedure that uses ultrasound to enter the skin, drugs dissolved in the couplant, or after application to the skin, eg. A gel. Methodology, and contraindications are the same as for the ultrasound but must also take into account the occurrence of hypersensitivity to the drug or allergies.
Combination therapy. Ultrasound can be combined in a single treatment with other methods of physical therapy, eg. with electrotherapy (TENS, currents of low frequency, currents modulated, currents medium frequency). Methodology, and contraindications are the same as for ultrasound and electrotherapy.
Description based on sources:
3. A. Bauer, M. Wisp, Methodological Guide After surgery Selected physical, ed. Markmed Rehabilitation S.C., pp. 229-253.
4. A.Straburzyńska-Lupa, G. Straburzyński, Physiotherapy, ed. 3, PZWL, Warsaw 2007, pp. 616-643.